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HISTORIC ROUTE | SEMIEN MOUNTAINS | OMO VALLEY | BALE MOUNTAINS & RIFT VALLEY
THE DANAKIL DEPRESSION | COMBINATION TOURS | HONEYMOONERS
NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES ( Kenya - Sudan - Djibouti - Tanzania - Uganda ) | PHOTO GALLERY
GLT Exclusives

Our tours extend to the lake shores
Obelisks in Axum, Ethiopia   Ethiopian tribes are famous for their adornments

Landscape in Djibouti
Cheetah in the Serengeti of Kenya   Sof Omar caves

Temple at Meroe in Sudan
Temple at Meroe in Sudan
Plenty of elephants in Kenya
 
Temple at Meroe in Sudan
A lion from Masai Mara in Kenya
 
GLT 1200 HISTORIC ETHIOPIA and DJIBOUTI
(24 DAYS, 23 NIGHTS)
TANZANIA TOURS
KENYA TOURS
SUDAN TOURS
01. Arrival at Addis Ababa.
02. Drive to Debre Libanos monastery and Blue Nile Gorge. O/N Debre Markos htl.
03. Drive to Bahir Dar and p.m. city tour.
04. Full day Bahir Dar. AM Blue Nile falls and PM boat trip on Tana Lake.
05. Drives to Gondar visit the 17th castles and churches.
06. Drive to Axum via Semien Mountains O/N hotel.
07. Full day city tour of Axum. O/N htl.
08. Drive to Adigrat, en rout visit Yeha temple and Debre Damo monastery.
09. Drive to Mekele, on the way Visit the Tigray rock-hewn churches (2-3 unique churches) & Negash Mosque 7th C AD.
10. Full day drive to Lalibella.
11. Full day in Lalibella. visiting the rock hewn churches of Lalibella.
12. Drive to Kombolcha on the way visit Hayk Estefanos monastery or Genete Mariam semi-monolithic church.
13. Drive to Asayta on the way visit the colorful Bati market, Afar people and Denakil Depression.
14. Drive to Abe and visit Asayta market. O/N Semera.
15. Early in the morning drive to Djibouti. O/N camping on the shore of lake Easal enjoying the beautiful views.

GLT1201, OMO VALLEY & TANZANIA 16 days
01. SAT. Arrival in Addis Ababa. Afternoon visit Entoto mountains with views over the capital, the National museum, St George church.. ON (overnight) hotel.
02. Drive to Arbaminch, admiring Tiya steles or Adadi Mariam church, the Guraghe + Wolayta people & villages and spectacular views. ON Swaynes hotel.
03. Morning boat on Chamo lake for crocodiles, hippos and birds. Then walk to the Netch Sar National park to see spectacular views. See different animals, as the endemic Swaynes Hartebeest, numerous zebras, lesser kudu, dik-dik, Kori Bustard, and more. Game drive and then drive back to Arbaminch. ON Swaynes hotel.
04. Drive to Jinka, admiring the Konso, Derase, Tsemay, Ari and Benna people on the way. Visit a Konso people village, which are famous for the terracing agriculture, and have particular way of life and traditions. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON Jinka in htl 05. Enter into the Mago National park, admiring different mammals and birds on the way; and proceed to visit the Mursi people and villages. Here for beauty women use to put round plates into their lips. ON back to Jinka in htl.
06. Drive to Turmi, admiring Thursday KeyAfer village market of Tsemay & Erbore people. Proceed to visit the Hamer people. If lucky in the evening admire one of their dances: the Evangadi. Dinner & ON Turmi Evangadi lodge www.evangadilodge.com
07. Drive to visit the Karo people, for their very interesting decoration and scarification all over their body; and very nice views over Omo river from Kortcho village. Visit then the Nyangatom people crossing the Omo river with small boats at Kangate. Back late afternoon to Turmi. With luck we’ll try also to participate to the Hamer people marriage ceremonies, with the bull jumping & more. ON Turmi.
08.SAT. Drive to Dimeka village, to participate to the very colorful Hamer, Karo and Dassanech people market at Dimeka village. Ones the market is done, visit in the region some very interesting Hamer people villages to understand their culture and try to look with luck for Hamer people marriages & dances ceremonies. ON Turmi.
09. Drive to the Erbore people and visit their villages & culture. Then cross the Weyto river valley, to the Konso people (if their village not visited on day 04, can be done now). Proceed to Arbaminch. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON Swaynes htl.
10. Drive to Chencha, for the Dorze people, with their unique culture, houses, and traditions. Then proceed to the Rift Valley lake of Langano, at the Wenney eco-lodge, secluded in a natural paradise at shore of lake Langano www.wenneyecolodge.com
11.TUE. Drive back to Addis. Afternoon visit the Mercato, biggest open air market in Africa. Dinner traditional restaurant with folkloristic dances. Dinner traditional restaurant with folkloristic dances. Evening departure to Tanzania (or can be next morning, according to the final flights schedules). ON htl.
12. Arrival Kilimanjaro airport. Fly to Serengeti National park. ON lodge.
13. Game drive at Serengeti National park, very rich of fauna and flora. Try to be here on the migration period, where million hartebeest makes the park rich of predators, looking for their passage as a good hunting. Visit the big five and lot of animals to be spotted in this fantastic habitat all year round. Balloon safaris can be organized by request, with supplement cost. ON lodge or tended camp.
14. Game drive & then drive to Ngorongoro crater. ON lodge over the rim or other.
15. Game drive at Ngorongoro crater, a secluded park, with the richest game in a short perimeter. Afternoon drive out of Ngorongoro. ON hotel or lodge.
16. SUN. Drive back to Arusha and departure.

GLT1202, OMO VALLEY & KENYA 16 days
01.SAT. Beginning of the tour in Addis Ababa. Morning short tour of the capital. Lunch. Drive to the Rift Valley lake of Langano. Dinner & ON Wenney ecolodge www.wenneyecolodge.com
02. Drive to Arbaminch, admiring Wolayta people & villages and spectacular views. Proceed then to the Dorze people and Chencha village. The Dorze are famous for their houses, cultures (among which the false banana, from which they extract the Kotcho, their traditional bread) & more. Dinner & ON Swaynes hotel Arbaminch.
03. Morning boat on Chamo lake for crocodiles, hippos and birds. Then walk to the Netch Sar National park to see spectacular views. Lunch. Game drive & drive back to Arbaminch. Dinner & ON Swaynes hotel. www.swayneshotel.com
04. Drive to Jinka, admiring the Konso, Tsemay, Ari and Benna people on the way. Visit a Konso people village, which are famous for the terracing agriculture, and have particular way of life and traditions. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON Jinka in htl
05. Enter into the Mago National park, admiring different mammals and birds on the way; and proceed to visit the Mursi people and villages. Here for beauty women use to put round plates into their lips. Lunch on the way; afternoon back Jinka. Visit the Jinka museum and walks to visit the town. ON in htl.
06. Drive to Turmi, admiring Thursday KeyAfer village market of Tsemay & Erbore people. Proceed to visit the Hamer people. If lucky in the evening admire one of their dances: the Evangadi. Dinner & ON Turmi Evangadi lodge www.evangadilodge.com
07. Drive to visit the Karo people, for their very interesting decoration and scarification all over their body; and very nice views over Omo river from Kortcho village. Visit then the Nyangatom people crossing the Omo river with small boats at Kangate. Back late afternoon to Turmi. With luck we’ll try also to participate to the Hamer people marriage ceremonies, with the bull jumping & more. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON Turmi Evangadi lodge
08. SAT. Drive to Dimeka village & visit the very colorful Hamer, Karo & Dassanech people market. Ones the market is done, visit in the region some very interesting Hamer people villages to understand their culture and try to look with luck for Hamer people marriages & dances ceremonies. ON Turmi.
09. Drive to Omorate, to visit the Dassanech people, at bank of Omo river. Take then the necessary permits to enter into Kenya. Drive then so to lake Turkana, admiring the Omo River, only affluent of the lake. Proceed into Kenya & drive to Sibiloi national park. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON camp.
10. Drive to Loyangalani, at bank of lake Turkana. Admire here the Turkana and Samburu tribes, with very interesting culture & villages. Dinner & ON Oasis lodge
11. A day to enjoy these very interesting tribes, and also Elmolo bay, or south island. Optional make a boat excursion too. Back for dinner & ON Oasis lodge or similar
12. Drive to Baragol & proceed to Maralal sanctuary. Dinner & ON camp.
13. Proceed to the Samburu National park, one of the richest & more interesting parks in Kenya. Very wide number of animals leave in the park; admire so the numerous fauna & a very interesting flora. Meals & ON in lodge 14. Proceed to Buffalo springs reserve & game drive. Meals & ON camp.
15. Drive to Mount Kenya National park, another extremely interesting park, with different flora & fauna. Optional make also different walks. Meals & ON in lodge.
16.SUN. Drive to Nairobi & have the afternoon tour of Nairobi. Dinner at the famous carnivore restaurant, before transfer to airport for departure (or if next day, ON Panafric or similar 4* hotel in Nairobi).

GLT1203, HISTORIC ROUTE & WILDLIFE (TANZANIA) 15 days
01. SAT. Arrival in Addis Ababa. Afternoon tour. ON (overnight) chosen hotel.
02. Fly to Axum, beginning of Ethiopian History, with the legend of Queen of Sheba, Solomon of Israel and their son King Menelik. Morning visit the steles, St Mary of Tsion church (where legend says is deposited the Ark of Covenant), the bath and the palace of Queen of Sheba. Lunch. Then drive to the Yeha temple, DebreDamo monastery and proceed to Hawsen or Adigrat. ON Gheralta lodge Hawsen (or if not available, Eve or Woldusbagadas htl in Adigrat).
03. Visit the Tigray rock churches, as Degum Selassie, Abreha We Atsbeha & Wikro Cherkos (or option could be also Medhanealem Adikesho, Michael MahalZenghie & Petros Paulos). ON Axum htl or similar in Mekele.
04. Drive to Lalibela, diving via Ambalagi, Alamata, Woldya, Dild & the Tekeze river, with very nice views and admiring the Tigray, Azebo/ Raya, Afar (with luck around Woldya) & Wollo people. Spot also the endemic Gelada Baboons around Dild. Dinner & ON Yemereha htl www.yemerehahotel.com or similar.
05. Full day visit of the rock-hewn churches in Lalibela, defined as the 8th wonder in the world. Churches built in the 12th century; the African Jerusalem. Meals & ON htl.
06. Morning visit Naktuleab cave church. Drive to Gondar, admiring the Semien mountains & the Historical site of DebreTabor, Ethiopian capital during Emperor Tewodros IV (19th century). Cross Fogera valley, one of the most fertile in Ethiopia, each late afternoon Gondar. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON htl in Gondar.
07. Morning tour of Gondar, visiting the castle’s compound & King Fasiladas bath, the Debre Birhan Sellasie church (light of Trinity) with wonderful murals and Empress Mentewab palace. Lunch. Then drive to Bahirdar. Dinner & ON htl.
08. Morning drive to admire the Blue Nile falls. Lunch back to Bahirdar. Afternoon boat trip on lake Tana to admire the beautiful monasteries over the lake’s islands, as Asua Mariam and Ura Kidane Mehret, with also the visit of an Amhara people village & coffee plantations. Dinner & ON htl in Bahirdar.
09.SUN. Fly to Addis Ababa. Afternoon visit the Merkato, biggest open air market in Africa. Dinner traditional restaurant with folkloristic dances. Evening departure to Tanzania (or can be next morning, according to the final flights schedules). ON htl 10. Arrival Kilimanjaro airport. Fly to Serengeti National park. ON lodge.
11. Game drive at Serengeti National park, very rich of fauna and flora. Try to be here on the migration period, where million hartebeest makes the park rich of predators, looking for their passage as a good hunting. Visit the big five and lot of animals to be spotted in this fantastic habitat all year round. Balloon safaris can be organized by request, with supplement cost. ON lodge or tended camp.
12. Game drive & then drive to Ngorongoro crater. ON lodge over the rim or other.
13. Game drive at Ngorongoro crater, a secluded park, with the richest game in a short perimeter. Afternoon drive out of Ngorongoro. ON hotel or lodge.
14. After Breakfast travel to Lake Manyara National Park, famed for flamingos and birds of prey. Enjoy free time at your lodge, set on the Rift Valley escarpment overlooking the park and valley 1,000 feet below. Keeps a sharp eye for tree-climbing lions lazing among the limbs of acacia trees on an afternoon game drive.
Meals: Breakfast, lunch and dinner. Lodging: Lake Manyara Serena Lodge http://www.serenahotels.com
15. SAT. After Breakfast drive to Arusha and then transfers Kilimanjaro International Airport fly back home, Lunch at Arusha

GLT1204, HISTORIC ROUTE & WILDLIFE (KENYA) 15 days
01.SAT. Arrival in Addis Ababa. Afternoon tour. ON (overnight) chosen hotel. 02. Fly to Axum, beginning of Ethiopian History, with the legend of Queen of Sheba, Solomon of Israel and their son King Menelik. Morning visit the steles, St Mary of Tsion church (where legend says is deposited the Ark of Covenant), the bath and the palace of Queen of Sheba. Lunch. Then drive to the Yeha temple, DebreDamo monastery and proceed to Hawsen or Adigrat. ON Gheralta lodge Hawsen (or if not available, Eve or Woldusbagadas htl in Adigrat) 03. Visit the Tigray rock churches, as Degum Selassie, Abreha We Atsbeha & Wikro Cherkos (or option could be also Medhanealem Adikesho, Michael MahalZenghie & Petros Paulos). ON Axum htl or similar in Mekele. 04. Drive to Lalibela, diving via Ambalagi, Alamata, Woldya, Dild & the Tekeze river, with very nice views and admiring the Tigray, Azebo/ Raya, Afar (with luck around Woldya) & Wollo people. Spot also the endemic Gelada Baboons around Dild. Dinner & ON Yemereha htl www.yemerehahotel.com or similar 05. Full day visit of the rock-hewn churches in Lalibela, defined as the 8th wonder in the world. Churches built in the 12th century; the African Jerusalem. Meals & ON htl 06. Morning visit Naktuleab cave church. Drive to Gondar, admiring the Semien mountains & the Historical site of DebreTabor, Ethiopian capital during Emperor Tewodros IV (19th century). Cross Fogera valley, one of the most fertile in Ethiopia, each late afternoon Gondar. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON htl in Gondar 07. Morning tour of Gondar, visiting the castle’s compound & King Fasiladas bath, the Debre Birhan Sellasie church (light of Trinity) with wonderful murals and Empress Mentewab palace. Lunch. Then drive to Bahirdar. Dinner & ON htl 08. Morning drive to admire the Blue Nile falls. Lunch back to Bahirdar. Afternoon boat trip on lake Tana to admire the beautiful monasteries over the lake’s islands, as Asua Mariam and Ura Kidane Mehret, with also the visit of an Amhara people village & coffee plantations. Dinner & ON htl in Bahirdar 09.SUN. Fly to Addis Ababa. Afternoon visit the Merkato, biggest open air market in Africa. Dinner traditional restaurant with folkloristic dances. Evening departure to Kenya (or can be next morning, according to the final flights schedules). ON htl 10. Depart for Lake Nakuru National Park (A fresh water lake with over 2 million flamingos that flock to feed on the teeming algae , over 450 different bird species have been recorded and it hosts a sanctuary to The Black Rhino and White Rhino). Arrive at the lodge for lunch & spend the early afternoon at leisure. Game drive at 1600hrs in search of wildlife. Dinner & ON at Flamingo Hill Tented Camp or other 11. Drive for the worlds famous Maasai Mara Game Reserve (Its sheer beauty of wide savannah, rolling hills, meandering rivers, riverine forests, forests with huge grazing herds, bountiful birdlife and the big five). Arriving at the lodge for lunch and spend the early afternoon at leisure. Enjoy a game drive at 1600hrs in search of wildlife , Dinner and Overnight at Ilkeliani Camp or Serena or Sopa lodge or other 12. Enjoy an early morning game drive at 0630hrs in search of wildlife. Return to the lodge for breakfast and spend the day at leisure. Enjoy a game drive at 1600hrs in search of wildlife , Dinner and ON at Ilkeliani Camp or Serena or Sopa lodge or other
13.THU. Depart for Nairobi. Enjoy a leisurely and scenic drive with a brief stopover at the View Point to Marvel at the beauty of The Great Rift Valley. Arrive in time for lunch at The Carnivore Restaurant to experience game meat and barbeque meat. Fly then Monbasa. Transfer to your hotel to relax. Dinner & ON hotel.
14. A day at leisure and relaxing at the beach and with activities. Meals & ON hotel.
15.SAT. Relaxing day before transfer to airport to connect to the international flight.

GLT1205, KENYA & TANZANIA 12 days
01. Fly to Nairobi. Met upon arrival by our representative and proceed to Mt.Kenya National Park in Nanyuki. Arrive in time for lunch at Serena Mountain Lodge. Afternoon game viewing. Dinner and overnight at Serena Mountain Lodge. www.serenahotels.com
02. Depart after breakfast and drive further north crossing the Equator to the semi-desert Northern frontier where Samburu, buffalo springs and Shaba Reserves are located to arrive in time for lunch. Unique to this area are reticulated giraffe, Grevy’s Zebra Gerenuk, Beisa Oryx and Somali ostrich. There are also lions, cheetahs, elephants, buffalo, leopards, other big game and 100 species of birds.
Meals and overnight at Samburu Sopa Lodge. Full Board www.sopalodges.com
03. Leave with picnic lunch for game drive in Samburu. This area is quite unique for its geographical and also its wildlife. You can expect to witness an abundance of wildlife here including the long necked gerenuk, Grey’s zebra and reticulated giraffe. Meals and Overnight at Samburu Sopa Lodge. Full Board.
04. Leave after breakfast and drive via Nyahururu Falls for a photo stop before proceeding down into the Great Rift to Lake Nakuru National Park, famous for its thousands flamingos and other birds. After lunch enjoy a game drive through the park and a visit to the lake. The park is also a sanctuary for the rare black rhino, leopard, waterbuck and other species of birds. Meals and Overnight at Flamingo Hills Tented Camp. Full Board www.flamingohillcamp.com
05. Depart after breakfast leaving Lake Nakuru behind and drive across the Rift Valley to Narok town, proceed on to Masai Mara Game Reserve to arrive in time for lunch. The Mara is actually the Northern tip of the famous Serengeti. During your afternoon game drive you may see all of the Big Five (Lion, Leopard, elephant, buffalo and rhino) as well as plains game such as giraffe, antelope and Zebra.
Meals and Overnight at Mara Leisure Camp FB. www.maraleisurecamp.co.ke
06. Early morning game drive and after breakfast game drive until time for lunch. Afternoon game drive in Masai Mara Game Reserve Kenya’s premier reserve, home to huge numbers of plains games such as wildebeest, Zebra and gazelle as well as large populations of lions. The Mara River which runs through the reserve contains many hippo and crocodiles. Mara Leisure Camp. Full Board.
07. Early morning game-viewing drive. Return to the lodge for breakfast. Proceed to Amboseli National Park right on the border with Tanzania. Mount Kilimanjaro is Africa’s highest mountain at 19,340 feet (5,895 metres).This afternoon you enjoy a game drive in majestic Amboseli. Serena Safari Lodge FB www.serenahotels.com
08. This morning you enjoy a game drive in Amboseli National Park. The park is particularly famous for its huge herds of elephants which take on a red color from the dust they coat themselves in. This mid morning transfer to Namanga and then proceed to Arusha, Tanzania side. ON Charity Hotel BB www.charityhoteltz.com
09. After Breakfast drive to Karatu near Ngorongoro Conservations Area, visiting local market and community activities on the way then followed by Lunch at Endoro Lodge, Dinner and Overnight stay at Endoro Lodge Karatu www.endorolodge.com
10. Head to the heart of Ngorongoro Crater, one of the largest calderas in the world, which contains a variety of ecosystems and an astounding concentration of birds and animals. Encounter massive herds of zebra, wildebeest, and gazelles. This area affords an opportunity to spot the Big Five, which includes African elephant, leopard, the black maned lion, buffalo, and the rare black rhinoceros. Enjoy a picnic lunch in the crater. Meals: Breakfast, lunch, dinner. Lodging: Endoro Lodge www.endorolodge.com
11. After Breakfast travel to Lake Manyara National Park, famed for flamingos and birds of prey. Enjoy free time at your lodge, set on the Rift Valley escarpment overlooking the park and valley 1,000 feet below. Keeps a sharp eye for tree-climbing lions lazing among the limbs of acacia trees on an afternoon game drive. Meals: Breakfast, lunch and dinner. Lodging: Lake Manyara Serena Lodge www.serenahotels.com
12.After Breakfast drive to Arusha and then transfers Kilimanjaro. International Airport fly back home, Lunch at Arusha

GLT1206, KENYA & TANZANIA 16 days
01. You begin your magical holiday today as you board your flight to Kenya – the heart of African Safari! On arrival into Jomo Kenyatta International Airport you are met by our representative and transferred to Sarova Panafric Hotel. Situated in the Central Highlands at an altitude of 6,130 feet (1,870 metres), Nairobi enjoys a mild climate. Day free for orientation and safari briefing. Overnight stay at the Sarova Panafric Hotel BB. www.sarovahotels.com
02. Proceed down into the Great Rift Valley to Lake Nakuru National Park. Afternoon you take game drive in Lake Nakuru National Park. Famous for its flocks of over one million Flamingoes. As well as seeing many large game animals such as zebras, elephants and gazelles, this is one of our best chances of seeing rhinos. Lake Nakuru National Park was the first place in Kenya selected as a rhino reserve. ON at the Flamingo Hills Tented Camp FB. www.flamingohillcamp.com or similar
03. This morning you drive down into the Great Rift Valley. Crossing the valley you make your way to Kenya's premier wildlife park - the Masai Mara. This is the northern section of the Serengeti Plain, which is home to the greatest concentration of game animals in the world. Arrive in time for lunch. Afternoon game viewing. Meals & ON Mara Leisure Camp FB. www.maraleisurecamp.co.ke or similar
04. Masai Mara the vast, open grasslands of the Serengeti-Mara are home to over 3 million large mammals. These include over 1.4 million wildebeest which migrate in an enormous, straggling herd each year between the southern parts of the Serengeti to the northern part and back again. On your morning and afternoon game drives in the Masai Mara you have a very good chance of seeing all the major Plains animals including lion, leopard, buffalo, elephant, rhino, hyena, cheetah, jackal, warthog and many species of antelope. All meals and overnight at Mara Leisure Camp. Full Board.
05. Proceed to Lake Victoria. Dinner & OM Sunset Hotel or similar.
06. Depart for Serengeti. You’ll be picked at Isbania border with Tanzania driver-guide to proceed to Serengeti National park for game viewing, Dinner & Overnight at Serengeti Savannah Camp in Serengeti or similar www.serengetisavannahcamps.com
07. Observe wildlife in the first light of day, an African safari thrill. An afternoon game drive on the Serengeti plains may yield sightings of wildebeests, zebras, giraffes, hyenas, leopards, cheetahs, elephants, rhinoceros, hippos, buffalos, jackals, and gazelles. This is one of the best places on the continent to see prides of lions.
Meals: Breakfast, lunch and dinner Lodging: Serengeti Savannah Camp or similar www.serengetisavannahcamps.com
08. Head to the heart of Ngorongoro Crater, one of the largest calderas in the world, which contains a variety of ecosystems and an astounding concentration of birds and animals. Encounter massive herds of zebra, wildebeest, and gazelles. This area affords an opportunity to spot the Big Five, which includes African elephant, leopard, the black maned lion, buffalo, and the rare black rhinoceros. Enjoy a picnic lunch in the crater. Lodging: Ngorongoro Serena Lodge FB. http://www.serenahotels.com or similar
09. Depart for Lake Eyasi, we will meet with the Hadzabe people, The Hadzabe are one of the last hunter gather tribes in East Africa and they live their traditional lifestyle in the forests between Oldeani and Lake Eyasi. We will have a chance to meet with the whole clan and spend quality time with the men, women and children both in their encampment and out in the wilderness Lodging & Meals: Tindiga Tented Camp, Lake Eyasi www.moivaro.com
10. The whole day is designed to be spent visiting and walking with the Hadzabe tribesmen. The Hadzabe will take us to their birthing tree; help us stalk wildlife, search for edible roots, and scoop honey from a tree. Truly an unforgettable day in the bush! ON Tindiga Tented Camp, Lake Eyasi www.moivaro.com
11. Depart for Lake Manyara National Park with picnic lunch, famed for flamingos and birds of prey, game viewing at Lake Manyara Park then evening drive at Lake Manyara Serena Lodge, set on the Rift Valley escarpment overlooking the park and valley 1,000 feet below. Keep sharp eyes for tree-climbing lions lazing among the limbs of acacia trees during the game drive. Meals: Breakfast, lunch, and dinner. ON Lake Manyara Serena Lodge or Similar serenahotels
12. Morning depart to Tarangire National Park, which boasts one of the highest concentrations of wildlife in Africa. You may see large herds of wildebeest, zebras, giraffes, and buffalo. Relax at your safari lodge before the late afternoon game drive, and swap sightings at the welcome reception and dinner. Meals: Breakfast, lunch and dinner. ON Tarangire River Camp or similar www.mbalimbali.com
13. Drive back to Arusha and then connect flight to Zanzibar met at Zanzibar Airport and transfers at Mtoni Marine Hotel or similar for Overnight stay. Meal Plan: Bed and Breakfast. Mtoni Marine Hotel
14. Relax at your hotels, with activities, diving, swimming, cycling, walking, exploration of the villages, and more. A half day guided tour of stone town can be organized and include the slaves market, St Joseph's cathedral, mosques, the spice markets, and much more. Walking into these narrow streets, by visiting how the local people leave-meet-and enjoy, the shops, colors & history, are so exciting.
15. Leisure day. Meal Plan: Bed and Breakfast. Mtoni Marine Hotel or similar
16. Transfers at Zanzibar Airport for departure.

GLT1207, The TANZANIA experience 11 days.
01.SAT. Arrival to Kilimajaro airport and drive to Tarangire Park. ON lodge Meals and Overnight at Tarangire River Camp www.mbalimbali.com or similar.
02. Morning game drive in Tarangire National Park. Later on depart with picnic lunch box to Lake Natron, evening at leisure at the campsite or lodge, dinner and overnight Natron Tented Camp. www.moivaro.com or similar.
03. Excursion in Lake Natron, evening at leisure at the campsite or lodge, dinner and overnight Natron Tented Camp www.moivaro.com or similar.
04. Proceed to Lobo for en route game drive with picnic lunch box, afternoon game drive, evening at leisure at the campsite or lodge, dinner and overnight Lobo Wildlife Lodge.
http://www.hotelsandlodges-tanzania.com or similar.
05. After breakfast, proceed for a full day game drive in Serengeti National Park Overnight Lobo Wildlife Lodge http://www.hotelsandlodges-tanzania.com or similar.
06. Proceed for a morning game drive in Serengeti National Park with picnic lunch box, later on drive to Ngorongoro for evening at leisure at the campsite or lodge, dinner and overnight Ngorongoro Serena Lodge or Similar www.serenahotels.com or similar.
07. After breakfast, descend down the crater floor for half day crater tour with picnic lunch. Later on ascend and proceed to Lake Manyara for evening at leisure at the campsite or lodge, dinner and overnight Migunga Tented Camp http://www.moivaro.com or similar.
08. After breakfast, proceed for a game drive in Lake Manyara National Park with picnic lunch box, later on drive back to Arusha. Fly then to Zanzibar. Meet your vehicle to bring you to your hotel, at the shores of these fantastic beaches. ON Sunset Kendwa or Breezes hotel or similar (for upgrading, we propose The Palm as exclusive hotel or the Baraza, luxury accommodations. Or other). Relax. www.sunsetkendwa.com or similar 09. Relax at your hotel, with activities as diving, swimming, cycling, walking, exploration of the villages, and more. ON hotel.
10. A guided tour of stone town includes the slaves market, St Joseph's cathedral, mosques, the spice markets, and much more. Walking into these narrow streets, by visiting how the local people leave-meet-and enjoy, the shops, colors & history, are so exciting. Relax during lunch with a fantastic view over the sea. Afternoon back for a wonderful sunset, relax, swim & dinner with nice music and overnight at your hotel.
11.TUE. Have breakfast and then drive to the airport for your flight. Extend for the parks in Tanzania or Kenya, or for the unique history & cultures in Ethiopia (pls see our programs) or fly back home.

GLT1208, The KENYA experience 11 days
01.SAT. Arrival to Nairobi. Have a day of tour of Kenya’s colorful capital. Dinner Carnivore restaurant. ON Panafric or Holiday Inn Nairobi or similar on BB basis.
02. After early breakfast depart at 0700hrs for Aberdare National Park. (An atmospheric park that's offers scenic beauty of the Aberdare Ranges, Mighty falls that plunge 300m and its home to the rare bongo species). Enjoy a leisurely drive arriving at the base hotel in time for lunch and a transfer will be arranged to the Tree Hotel where the afternoon is spent at leisure viewing wildlife directly from the Lodge as they come for water and salt lick. Dinner and Overnight at a Lodge
03. Depart for Lake Nakuru National Park (A fresh water lake with over 2 million flamingos that flock to feed on the teeming algae , over 450 different bird species have been recorded and it hosts a sanctuary to The Black Rhino and White Rhino). Arrive at the lodge for lunch & spend the early afternoon at leisure. Game drive at 1600hrs in search of wildlife. Dinner & ON at Flamingo Hill Tented Camp or other
04. Drive for the worlds famous Maasai Mara Game Reserve (Its sheer beauty of wide savannah, rolling hills, meandering rivers, riverine forests, forests with huge grazing herds, bountiful birdlife and the big five). Arriving at the lodge for lunch and spend the early afternoon at leisure. Enjoy a game drive at 1600hrs in search of wildlife , Dinner and Overnight Serena or Sopa lodge or Keekorok lodge or other
05. Enjoy an early morning game drive at 0630hrs in search of wildlife. Return to the lodge for breakfast and spend the day at leisure. Enjoy a game drive at 1600hrs in search of wildlife , Dinner Serena or Sopa lodge or Keekorok lodge or other
06. Drive to the Amboseli National Park lying below the most famous symbol of Africa, Mt Kilimanjaro. Game drive en-route to your lodge. Overnight at Oltukai Lodge or Serena or similar
07. Full day at this very nice National park. ON lodge
08. Morning game drive. Then drive to Nairobi, ON hotel
09. Transfer to JKI Airport for your domestic flightto Malindi, an ancient town whose history goes back thousands of years and a coast where one can surf all year round. The Malindi Marine National Park presents a remarkable showcase of the wonderful tropical marine ecosystem. Transfer to your hotel in Watamu. Overnight at Turtle Bay Beach Club or other on All Inclusive Basis.
10. Full day at leisure on the beach. Overnight hotel on All Inclusive Basis.
11.TUE. Transfer to Malindi Airport for your domestic flight to Nairobi. Connect on to your next flight.

GLT1209, ETHIOPIA, KENYA & TANZANIA 22 days
01.SAT. Beginning of the tour in Addis Ababa. Morning short tour of the capital. Lunch. Drive to the Rift Valley lake of Langano. Dinner & ON Wenney ecolodge.
02. Drive to Arbaminch, admiring Wolayta people & villages and spectacular views. Proceed then to the Dorze people and Chencha village. The Dorze are famous for their houses & cultures. Dinner & ON Swaynes hotel Arbaminch.
03. Morning boat on Chamo lake for crocodiles, hippos and birds. Then walk to the Netch Sar National park to see spectacular views. Lunch. Game drive & drive back to Arbaminch. Dinner & ON Swaynes hotel. www.swayneshotel.com
04. Drive to Jinka, admiring the Konso, Tsemay, Ari and Benna people on the way. Visit a Konso people village, which are famous for the terracing agriculture, and have particular way of life and traditions. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON Jinka in htl
05. Enter into the Mago National park & visit the Mursi people & villages. For beauty women use to put round plates into their lips. Lunch on the way; afternoon back Jinka. Visit the Jinka museum and walks to visit the town. ON in htl.
06. Drive to Turmi, admiring Thursday KeyAfer village market of Tsemay & Erbore people. Proceed to visit the Hamer people. If lucky in the evening admire one of their dances: the Evangadi. Dinner & ON Turmi Evangadi lodge www.evangadilodge.com
07. Drive to visit the Karo people, for their very interesting decoration and scarification all over their body; and very nice views over Omo river from Kortcho village. Visit then the Nyangatom people crossing the Omo river with small boats at Kangate. Back late afternoon to Turmi. With luck we’ll try also to participate to the Hamer people marriage ceremonies, with the bull jumping. ON Turmi Evangadi lodge.
08.SAT. Drive to Dimeka village & visit the very colorful Hamer, Karo & Dassanech people market. Then visit in the region some very interesting Hamer people villages & with luck Hamer people marriages & dances ceremonies. ON Turmi.
09. Drive to Omorate & visit Dassanech people, at bank of Omo river. Take then the necessary permits to enter into Kenya. Drive then to lake Turkana, admiring the Omo River, only affluent of the lake. Enter into Kenya & ON camp Sibiloi national park.
10. Drive to Loyangalani, lake Turkana, for Turkana and Samburu tribes. ON lodge.
11. Drive to the Maralal sanctuary & game drive. ON camp.
12. Proceed to lake Baringo for flamingoes & many birds- Naivasha. ON camp.
13. Drive to the biggest Kenya National park: Masai Mara. ON Serena or Sopa lodge.
14. Game drive at Masai Mara, with the big 5 and lot of animals and a wonderful savanna land. Visit also the famous Masai people. ON lodge.
15. Proceed to very interesting Amboseli park, with the spectacular views of Mount Kilimanjaro. ON Serena or Sopa lodge
16. Morning game drive. Then drive to the border and proceed to Tanzania. Proceed then to Arusha, one of the biggest north-Tanzania town. ON 4* hotel.
17. Drive to lake Manyara National park; game drive & ON Serena or other lodge.
18. Proceed to the Serengeti National park, the other side of Masai Mara, with wonderful savanna land, and crossing the very interesting Masai people. ON lodge.
19. Full day game drive in Serengeti, maybe the most fabulous parks in Tanzania.
20. Drive to Ngorongoro crater, a secluded park, with the richest game in a short perimeter. ON lodge with fantastic view over the crater.
21. Drive into the crater for game drive. Back late afternoon. ON lodge or hotel.
22.SAT. Drive back to Arusha. Tour of the town. Evening (or next day) departure.

GLT1210, From the QUEEN OF SHEBA to the BLACK PHARAOHS 15 days
01.SAT. Beginning of the tour in Addis Ababa. Morning free. Afternoon (1400 hrs from the hotel) tour of the capital: visit Entoto mountains with views over the capital, the National museum, St George church. ON (overnight) chosen hotel.
02. Fly to Axum, beginning of Ethiopian History, with the legend of Queen of Sheba, Solomon of Israel and their son King Menelik. Morning visit the steles, St Mary of Tsion church (where legend says is deposited the Ark of Covenant), the bath and the palace of Queen of Sheba. Lunch. Then drive to the Yeha temple, DebreDamo monastery and proceed to Hawsen or Adigrat. ON Gheralta lodge Hawsen (or if not available, Eve or Woldusbagadas htl in Adigrat).
03. Visit the Tigray rock churches, as Degum Selassie, Abreha We Atsbeha & Wikro Cherkos (or option could be also Medhanealem Adikesho, Michael MahalZenghie & Petros Paulos). ON Axum htl or similar in Mekele.
04. Drive to Lalibela, admiring spectacular views. We’ll drive via Ambalagi, Alamata, Kobo, Woldya, Dild & the Tekeze river valley, with very nice views and admiring different ethnic groups as the Tigray, Azebo/ Raya, Afar (with luck around Woldya) & Wollo people. With luck spot also the endemic Gelada Baboons around Dild. Dinner & ON Yemereha htl www.yemerehahotel.com or similar.
05. Full day visit of the rock-hewn churches in Lalibela, defined as the 8th wonder in the world. Churches built in the 12th century; the African Jerusalem. Meals & ON htl.
06. Morning visit Naktuleab cave church. Proceed then driving to Bahirdar, crossing very nice views admiring the Semien mountains at the north (around Gaynt) & the Historical site of DebreTabor, Ethiopian capital during Emperor Tewodros IV (19th century). Cross Fogera valley, one of the most fertile in Ethiopia, with rice and many other farms. Lunch on the way; dinner & ON hotel in Bahirdar.
07. Morning admire the Blue Nile falls. Afternoon boat trip on lake Tana to admire the beautiful monasteries over the islands, as Asua Mariam and Ura Kidane Mehret, with also the visit of an Amhara people village & coffee plantations. Dinner & ON htl.
08. Drive to Gondar (2 hrs drive on a new road) and then tour, visiting the castle’s compound & King Fasiladas bath, the Debre Birhan Sellasie church (light of Trinity) with wonderful murals and Empress Mentewab palace. Meals & ON hotel
09. Drive to Metema, the twon in the border Ethiopia-Sudan. Make the necessary process and we drive North-West to the agricultural town of Gedaref, capital of Al Qadarif State, which name stands for the wide flat plains of the area that are watered by seasonal rains, making them ideal for cultivation. The main crops are sorghum and sesame and the area is dotted with clusters of villages. ON in a basic hotel.
10. Drive towards Khartoum, crossing the Gezira State. Here we found evidence of the British colonization: indeed, its capital, Wad Medani, is the centre of the region’s cotton farms established as a massive experiment carried out by the British, starting from 1911. The clay plains of Gezira, located between the Blue and the White Nile, are some of the richest agricultural lands in Sudan and, by far, the most intensively farmed. In the afternoon we reach Khartoum. Dinner & ON Grand Holiday Villa Hotel.
11. We move to Omdurman, the ancient capital of Sudan. Here we visit the Khalifa’s House and Mahdi’s tomb in order to learn about the quests of this charismatic leader that expelled the British and the Egyptians uniting the country under Islam. We then visit the interesting souk, which is the largest of the country and where it is possible to find some handcrafts. Lunch in a local restaurant. We then cross the Nile on a bridge to see the confluence between the Blue and the White Nile (Please note that it is forbidden by the law to stop on the bridge and to take pictures) and we then visit the Ethnographic Museum that shows the very interesting varieties of Sudanese tribes. Return to the hotel in the evening, dinner free and overnight stay.
12. Then visit of the Archaeological Museum that, besides many beautiful objects, contains two beautiful temples rescued by UNESCO and moved from the Lake Nasser area, when it was flooded by the water. Late in the morning we begin the journey northward through the Western desert. We travel in a flat desert where the view can span 360° around and we reach Wadi Muqaddam with its many acacia trees. We will stop at the "chai houses", literally tea houses, which are simply a sort of very Spartan "motorway restaurants", in the desert where local truck drivers usually stop for a quick meal and some rest. In the afternoon we reach the Nile in the small town of Merowe. Dinner & ON at the Nubian Rest-house, just at the foot of Jebel Barkal.
13. Landmark in the Nubian Desert, Jebel Barkal ("Jebel" means mountain in Arabic) can be seen from a few dozen kilometres whilst still in the open desert. At the foot of this wonderful and isolated red sandstone mountain, considered holy since the ancient times, there is a big temple, dedicated to the Pharaohs of the New Reign and to their patron, Amon. Amon's ancient "Pure Mountain", the Olympus of the Nubians, was the religious Nubian heart for more than 1000 years. Besides the ruins of the big temple there are still several sculptured granite rams that were supposed to border a long avenue that probably led to the pier on the Nile. In the mountain wall there is a big room decorated with bas-relief. The Royal necropolis of the ancient city of Napata, the Nubian capital (from 800 to 400 b.C.) before the Meroitic period, had a large number of pyramids, located in three different places: few hundred meters north of Jebel Barkal; a dozen kilometers southwards from the holy mountain, in El Kurru; in Nuri, which is located on the other bank of the Nile. We then move southwards to the village of El Kurru where there is one of the necropolis of the ancient capital, Napata. Here we can visit two tombs, which are excavated in the rock under pyramids - partially collapsed - and are decorated with images of the Pharaoh, of the gods and multicolour hieroglyphic inscriptions. The trip goes on with the visit to a site, rich in fossil trunks in the desert. Back to Karima, dinner & ON Rest-House.
14. Depart northwards, going into the Nubian Desert with its level evenness, its sand stretches and its soft undulation. It is an almost sterile area where no vegetation survives. Here there used to be the beautiful granite rocky formations of the 4th Cataract, which prevented the Nile from flowing slowly and formed many rapids that obstructed the navigation. In April 2008 the new Dam of Merowee has been completed and the flooding of the artificial lake started. Here we take a suggestive cruise on the Nile and we walk on the small islands to explore the sandy beaches along the Nile edges. We cross the Nile to reach the Pyramids of Nuri and then we depart through the Bayuda Desert, an area bounded by the loop that the Nile forms between the 4th and the 6th Cataract and characterised by sharp black basalt mountains, most of them volcanic and typically cone-shaped. They alternate with level pebble stretches and large valleys crossed by dry wadis, where little vegetation can be seen. It is very likely to meet isolated groups of Bisharin nomads, who live in familiar groups in small huts made of intertwined branches close to the rare water wells, with their caravans and herds of camels and donkeys. Lunch on the way. Late in the afternoon we reach the town of Atbara, located on the confluence between the Nile and the Atbara River. Here we cross the Nile for the last time. We start driving south on a level ground area where there are many small camel thorn acacia trees as far as we can see. And then, all of a sudden, we can glance at more than 40 pyramids, located on top of a hill, some of them perfectly preserved, that belong to the Royal Necropolis of Meroe. Dinner & ON at the permanent tented camp of Meroe (comfortable and fully furnished tents) with a beautiful view onto the pyramids.
15. Visit of the pyramids. The Royal necropolis of Meroe is located at about 3 km from the Nile on some hills covered by yellow sand dunes. Several pyramids stand out with their sharp shapes against the clear sky. Each one has its own funerary chapel with the walls fully decorated with bas-reliefs that show the King’s life and offers to the gods. We then start heading south until we need to take a detour from the main road in order to visit the two impressive archaeological sites of Naga and Mussawarat. The site of Naga is located about 30 km to the east of the Nile and it is one of the two centres that developed during the Meroitic period. In Naga, in a typical Saharan environment with rocks and sand, we find a temple dedicated to Apedemak (1st century a.D.): a wonderful building with bas-relief decorations depicting the god with a lion’s head, the Pharaoh, noblemen and several ritual images. A few metres away there is a small and odd construction with arches and columns, named "kiosk", in which we can notice Egyptian, Roman and Greek styles, all at the same time. Not far away we reach another temple dedicated to Amon with many statues of rams and beautiful gates decorated with bas-reliefs. We then go to Mussawarat, not far away from Naga. This settlement is located in a beautiful valley crowned by hills. Here the ruins of a very big temple are visible; it once played an exceptional important role. Its main characteristic, the Great Enclosure, is made by many constructions and boundary walls which surround a temple built in the 1st century a.D. The large number of elephants represented on these walls makes you think that this animal used to have an important role in this area. Beyond the big wadi there is another temple dedicated to the god Apedemak. Picnic in the area. In the evening we reach Khartoum. Check in at the Grand Holiday Villa Hotel. Dinner free.
16. Transfer to the airport for the flight to Addis Ababa; transit and proceed to your destination [we also suggest extension to the parks in Tanzania or Kenya or the fantastic beaches in Zanzibar or Monbasa (see our programs)]
The itinerary can be run in opposite direction without any changes for visits and excursions.

SUDAN - Kingdom OF THE BLACK PHARAONS:

KINGDOM OF THE BLACK PHARAONS:
day 1 / Gallabat - Gedaref (Tue 16.02.10)
Meet and Greet with the guide at the Sudanese-Ethiopian boarder in Gallabat. We immediately enter in the history of Sudan. Indeed, this small dusty outpost was the place where, in March 1889, the Mahdist army fought and beat the Ethiopian forces of the king Yohannes IV.
From here we drive North-West to the agricultural town of Gedaref, capital of Al Qadarif State. The name of the town like the name of the region stands for the wide flat plains of the area that are watered by seasonal rains, making them ideal for cultivation. The main crops are sorghum and sesame and the area is dotted with clusters of villages of round, thatched mud-brick houses. Overnight in a basic hotel. (D.)

day 2 / Gedaref - Khartoum (Wed 17.02.10)
In the morning we start driving towards Khartoum, crossing the Gezira State. Here we found evidence of the British colonization: indeed, its capital, Wad Medani, is the centre of the region's cotton farms established as a massive experiment carried out by the British, starting from 1911. The clay plains of Gezira, located between the Blue and the White Nile, are some of the richest agricultural lands in Sudan and, by far, the most intensively farmed. In the afternoon we reach Khartoum.
Check in at the Grand Holiday Villa Hotel, dinner free and overnight stay. (B.L.)

day 3 / Khartoum - city tour (Thu 18.02.10)
Breakfast at the hotel and then we move to Omdurman, the ancient capital of Sudan. Here we visit the Khalifa's House and Mahdi's tomb in order to learn about the quests of this charismatic leader that expelled the British and the Egyptians uniting the country under Islam. We then visit the interesting souk, which is the largest of the country and where it is possible to find some handcrafts. Lunch in a local restaurant. We then cross the Nile on a bridge to see the confluence between the Blue and the White Nile (Please note that it is forbidden by the law to stop on the bridge and to take pictures. There is police at the beginning and at the end of the bridge to ensure nobody stops. We can drive slowly and ensure the pax are aware on where to look, but it is impossible to stop. In addition it would be possible to take a pleasant cruise on the Nile in order to have a better view of the confluence between the two rivers. This is optional and it needs to be booked and paid locally) and we then visit the Ethnographic Museum that shows the very interesting varieties of Sudanese tribes. Return to the hotel in the evening, dinner free and overnight stay. (B.L.)

day 4 / Khartoum - Karima (Fri 19.02.10)
Breakfast at the hotel and then visit of the Archaeological Museum that, besides many beautiful objects, contains two beautiful temples rescued by UNESCO and moved from the Lake Nasser area, when it was flooded by the water. Late in the morning we begin the journey northward through the Western desert. We travel in a flat desert where the view can span 360° around and we reach Wadi Muqaddam with its many acacia trees. We will stop at the "chai houses", literally tea houses, which are simply a sort of very Spartan "motorway restaurants", in the desert where local truck drivers usually stop for a quick meal and some rest. In the afternoon we finally reach the Nile in the small town of Merowe where, on the other side of the river, there is our NUBIAN REST-HOUSE just at the foot of Jebel Barkal. Dinner and overnight at the rest house. (B.L.D.)
THE NUBIAN REST- HOUSE IN KARIMA.
Karima is a small town located on the right bank of the Nile, close to the famous archaeological site at the foot of Jebel Barkal, south of the 4th Cataract. The town is a small, dusty and calm village, where a big market takes place in the morning. The Nubian House is a charming small hotel built in the typical Nubian style just at the foot of Jebel Barkal, the holy mountain of the old Egyptian and Nubian Pharaohs. It is surrounded by a large private enclosure, with a nice garden and leisure area. Each room is characterized by a peculiar Nubian door and has its own private bathroom and a pleasant veranda. The decor and finishing have been carefully selected. They come mainly from Italy and provide an elegant yet rustic charm. A reception, a restaurant and a living room with decorated walls complete the wonderful setting. All the buildings are made with local bricks covered by hand-spread clay plaster as used in the Nubian area. The hotel is managed by an Italian manager with the help of well-trained Sudanese staff.

day 5 / Karima - visit of Jebel Barkal and the necropolis of El Kurru (Sat 20.01.10)
Landmark in the Nubian Desert, Jebel Barkal ("Jebel" means mountain in Arabic) can be seen from a few dozen kilometres whilst still in the open desert. At the foot of this wonderful and isolated red sandstone mountain, considered holy since the ancient times, there is a big temple, dedicated to the Pharaohs of the New Reign and to their patron, Amon. Amon's ancient "Pure Mountain", the Olympus of the Nubians, was the religious Nubian heart for more than 1000 years. Besides the ruins of the big temple there are still several sculptured granite rams that were supposed to border a long avenue that probably led to the pier on the Nile. In the mountain wall there is a big room decorated with bas-relief. The Royal necropolis of the ancient city of Napata, the Nubian capital (from 800 to 400 b.C.) before the Meroitic period, had a large number of pyramids, located in three different places: few hundred metres north of Jebel Barkal; a dozen kilometres southwards from the holy mountain, in El Kurru; in Nuri, which is located on the other bank of the Nile. We then move southwards to the village of El Kurru where there is one of the necropolis of the ancient capital, Napata. Here we can visit two tombs, which are excavated in the rock under pyramids - partially collapsed - and are totally decorated with images of the Pharaoh, of the gods and multicolour hieroglyphic inscriptions. The trip goes on with the visit to a site, rich in fossil trunks in the desert. In the evening return to Karima, accommodation at the Rest-House, dinner and overnight stay. (B.L.D.)

day 6 / Karima - Nubian Desert and the 4th Cataract - Nuri - Bayuda Desert - Meroe (Sun 21.02.10)
After breakfast, we depart early in the morning northwards, going into the Nubian Desert with its level evenness, its sand stretches and its soft undulation. It is an almost sterile area where no vegetation survives. Here there used to be the beautiful granite rocky formations of the 4th Cataract, which prevented the Nile from flowing slowly and formed many rapids that obstructed the navigation. In April 2008 the new Dam of Merowee has been completed and the flooding of the artificial lake started. Here we take a suggestive cruise on the Nile and we walk on the small islands to explore the sandy beaches along the Nile edges. We cross the Nile to reach the Pyramids of Nuri and then we depart through the Bayuda Desert, an area bounded by the loop that the Nile forms between the 4th and the 6th Cataract and characterised by sharp black basalt mountains, most of them volcanic and typically cone-shaped. They alternate with level pebble stretches and large valleys crossed by dry wadis, where little vegetation can be seen. It is very likely to meet isolated groups of Bisharin nomads, who live in familiar groups in small huts made of intertwined branches close to the rare water wells, with their caravans and herds of camels and donkeys. Pic nic on the way. Late in the afternoon we reach the town of Atbara, located on the confluence between the Nile and the Atbara River. Here we cross the Nile for the last time. We start driving south on a level ground area where there are many small camelthorn acacia trees as far as we can see. And then, all of a sudden, we can glance at more than 40 pyramids, located on top of a hill, some of them perfectly preserved, that belong to the Royal Necropolis of Meroe. Arrival at the permanent tented camp of Meroe with a beautiful view onto the pyramids. Accommodation in comfortable and fully furnished tents, dinner and overnight stay. (B.L.D.).

THE PERMANENT TENTED CAMP IN MEROE:
Meroe tented Camp is located in Bagarwyia, (about 230 km. north of Khartoum) overlooking the beautiful pyramids of Meroe. Accommodation consists of 10 twin-bedded tents (4x4 m), tastefully furnished. Each one has its own private bathroom hut with shower and toilet. The Camp is located 3.5 km from the Royal Necropolis. Each tent is equipped with a veranda with two comfortable chairs to relax in front of the astonishing view of more than forty pyramids. The tents have electricity produced by a generator working till 11:00 pm. A restaurant building is available for the guests. The Camp is managed by an Italian manager with the help of well-trained Sudanese staff. With this permanent facility, this arid region of extraordinary archaeological interest and beautiful landscapes become accessible even to those reluctant to sacrifice their comfort.

day 7 / Meroe - the royal necropolis - Naga and Mussawarat temples - Khartoum (Mon 22.02.10)
Early in the morning breakfast at the camp and then visit of the pyramids. The Royal necropolis of Meroe is located at about 3 km from the Nile on some hills covered by yellow sand dunes. Several pyramids stand out with their sharp shapes against the clear sky. Each one has its own funerary chapel with the walls fully decorated with bas-reliefs that show the King's life and offers to the gods. We then start heading south until we need to take a detour from the main road in order to visit the two impressive archaeological sites of Naga and Mussawarat. The site of Naga is located about 30 km to the east of the Nile and it is one of the two centres that developed during the Meroitic period. In Naga, in a typical Saharan environment with rocks and sand, we find a temple dedicated to Apedemak (1st century a.D.): a wonderful building with bas-relief decorations depicting the god with a lion's head, the Pharaoh, noblemen and several ritual images. A few metres away there is a small and odd construction with arches and columns, named "kiosk", in which we can notice Egyptian, Roman and Greek styles, all at the same time. Not far away we reach another temple dedicated to Amon with many statues of rams and beautiful gates decorated with bas-reliefs. We then go to Mussawarat, not far away from Naga. This settlement is located in a beautiful valley crowned by hills. Here the ruins of a very big temple are visible; it once played an exceptional important role. Its main characteristic, the Great Enclosure, is made by many constructions and boundary walls which surround a temple built in the 1st century a.D. The large number of elephants represented on these walls makes you think that this animal used to have an important role in this area. Beyond the big wadi there is another temple - restored by a German archaeological mission - dedicated to the god Apedemak. Picnic in the area. In the evening we reach Khartoum. Check in at the Grand Holiday Villa Hotel. Dinner free. (B.L.)

day 8 / departure (Tue 23.02.10)
Early in the morning transfer and boarding the international flight. The itinerary can be run in opposite direction without any changes for visits and excursions.

NUBIA ANCIENT MAGICAL LAND:
day 1 / Khartoum
Arrival in Khartoum expected in the late afternoon. Transfer to the hotel, dinner free and overnight stay. day 2 / Khartoum - Naga
Morning to visit the town and the Archaeological Museum that, besides many beautiful objects, contains two full temples rescued by the UNESCO and moved from the Lake Nasser area, when it was flooded by the water. After we drive to Omdurmann where we visit the Khalifa House and the Mahdi's Tomb. The expedition departs late morning heading North. After 3 hours drive, through a desert of strange rocky hills, we arrive at the ancient site of Naga, where we can see the temple of Apedemak (1°st century a.D.) a beautiful sandstone building with engraved walls with the images of the Meroitic kings and gods. Nearby, another temple in Greek/Roman style called "Kiosk" and another one dedicated to Amon with many statues of rams and beautiful temple entrance door decorated with bas-reliefs. Overnight in camp. (B.L.D.)

Day 3 / Naga - Musawwarat - Meroe.
One hour drive from Naga we reach Musawwarat El Sufra, where it is possible to visit the Elephant Temple, much bigger but less well preserved than those at Naga, and the Lion Temple. At this site archaeologists of the Humbolt Institute of Berlin have been doing research for the last few years. Then we reach the small town of Shendi, on the Nile where we stop for supplies of water and fresh food. After a hour drive the pyramids of the royal necropolis of Meroe become visible on top of a rise among yellow sand dunes. Here there are tens of pyramids, some very well preserved just in front of them there are some small funerary temples with the walls fully decorated with bas-reliefs that show the King's life and the gods. Dinner and overnight in tents. (B.L.D.)

day 4 / Meroe - Atbara - Bayuda Desert - Atrun crater.
This morning we move along the Nile to visit the ruins of the Royal city. The excavations confirm that it used to be on a large area with a central one surrounded by suburbs and a boundary wall. Most of the area where the city is located, that is formed by many small hills covered by red clay fragments, has still to be excavated by the archaeologists.
After the visit, we continue northward and we reach Atbara at the junction with the Atbara river with the Nile. We cross the Nile and we enter in the Bayuda desert, area bounded by the loop formed by the Nile between the 4th and the 6th Cataract and characterised by sharp black basalt mountains, most of them volcanic and typically cone-shaped. They alternate with level pebble stretches and large valleys with dry wadis going through where there is little vegetation. We might meet isolated groups, camel and donkey caravans of the Bisharin nomads, who live in familiar groups in small huts made of intertwined branches covered with large camel wool blankets, near the rare water wells in the area. Just in the centre of the Bayuda Desert we reach the Atrun Crater, where nomads gather salt from the edge of a green coloured pool. They will then sell it to markets of the towns outside the desert. Dinner and overnight in the desert. (B.L.D.)

day 5 / Bayuda Desert - Nuri - Karima.
We complete the desert crossing and we reach the Nile. Here we can visit the pyramids of Nuri, one of the necropolis of the ancient capital of Napata. We cross the river in the town of Merowe and we arrive in the small town of Karima at the foot of the holy mountains Jebel Barkal. Dinner and overnight in tents. (B.L.D.)

Day 6 / Karima - El Kurru - Jebel Barkal - 4th cateract.
Today we drive 20 km south to visit the site of El Kurru, where there is another necropolis of the ancient capital Napata. Here we can visit two tombs which are excavated in the rock under the pyramids - partially collapsed - and they are totally decorated with images of the Pharaoh, of the gods and multicolour hieroglyphic inscriptions. Not far from here there is an interesting site of petrified wood with hundreds of huge trunks. Landmark in the Nubian desert, Jebel Barkal can be seen from a few dozens of kilometres whilst still in the open desert. At the foot of this wonderful isolated red sandstone mountain with cliffs and considered holy since the ancient times there is the big temple dedicated to the God Amon which was built and enlarged by different Pharaohs dynasties. The Amon's ancient "Pure Mountain", the Olympus of the Nubians, was the religious Nubian heart for more than 1500 years. Besides the ruins of the big temple there are still some sculptured granite rams that were supposed to border a long avenue that probably led to the pier on the Nile. In the mountain walls there are 2 hypogeum rooms decorated with bas-relief. After the visit to the archaeological sites we drive northwards going into the Nubian desert with its level evenness, its sand stretches and its soft undulation. It is an almost sterile area where no vegetation survives. We then reach the beautiful granite rocky formations of the 4th Cataract, which prevent the Nile from flowing slowly but form many rapids that obstruct the navigation. (In April 2008 they have started to flood the new Merowee Dam, we are not sure how much we will be able to see of the 4th cateract, for sure we will see a lake). Dinner and overnight in camp. (B.L.D.)

Day 7 / Nubian desert - El Kab village - Station n.6
This morning we drive north across the desert to the amazing village of El Kab. The village develops on the Nile river banks between 2 Turkish forts built on the top of the hill. In fact all the area is characterized by big pillars of rocks and beautiful palm trees; a real oasis in the desert. Abu Hamed is a small village where the Nile change its course and goes south, it is the last village until the boarder with Egypt and so we'll take advantage of the few shops available. From here we leave the course of the Nile river and we start crossing the Nubian desert to reach the Railway Line which connects Wadi Halfa to Khartoum. We follow the railway line stopping at the interesting Station n. 6 which still have the typical atmosphere of the British style railway stations. (B.L.D.)

day 8 / Station n.6 Umm Nabari Gold mine - Wadi Halfa - Lake Nasser.
We drive east following an old railway track to look for the Umm Nabari Gold Mine at the base of the Mountain Umm Nabari which stands out on the white sand plain that surrounds it. Stone grinders of the old miners are still found in the area as well as the steel carriages and more mining tools. After the visit we drive north to the boarder town of Wadi Halfa where we will need to stock up for the next few days. We camp in the desert not far from the Nasser Lake that the locals call Nuba Lake. Dinner and overnight in camp. (B.L.D.)

day 9 - 10 - 11/ Abri - Isle of Sai - Temple of Soleb
We follow the Nile south on the eastern side crossing interesting Nubian villages where not many travellers normally go. We cross the Nile to reach the Isle of Sai, here there are the ruins of Egyptian temples and Turkish forts. After the visit we set camp on the eastern side of the Nile. We stop in the little village of Wawa and we cross the Nile with a small boat to visit the temple of Soleb. This is the most beautiful Egyptian temple of all Sudan, testimony of the New Kingdom in Nubia, with full walls rich in hieroglyphic inscriptions, bas-relief figures and many columns. Dinners and overnights in camp. (B.L.D.)

day 12 / Third Cataract - Tombos - Kerma
We reach the granite boulders of the Third Cataract, this used to be the third huge obstacle that the ancients Egyptians had to face when trying to sail on the Nile river. In Sebu, right on the river bank, there are many rock engravings on the mountain walls. Not far from here, among the rocks near the village of Tombos, we can find a statue of the black Pharaohs Taharqa, left in the old quarries since 3000 years. In the small town of Kerma we can visit the archaeological site where there are remains of the "Defuffa", old building made by row bricks, probably a sacred area for the Kerma civilisation. Overnights in camps. (B.L.D.)

day 13-14 / Nubian villages - Old Dongola - Western desert.
The Nubian desert has some sand dunes, flat sandy plains and red rocky boulders eroded by the wind. We keep on following the Nile. This area is the central part of the Nubian region. Here the population speaks a different language from the Arabs, and also the Islamic religion is not as "strict" as in other regions. The women don't cover their faces and readily speak to foreigners. The villages are beautiful, between sand dunes and palm trees; some houses are painted and decorated with patterns and flowers. Enthusiastic hospitality abounds, people will often invite foreigners to visit their home and share a meal or a cup of spiced tea. near the site of Old Dongola a Christian Coptic temple with marble columns as well as several churches are situated on the bank of the Nile. From the Nile we drive west in the western desert. Another kind of desert will appear to the eyes of the passengers: rounded "stony dunes", covered by small round stones, probably an ancient Nile bed. Overnights in camp. (B.L.D.)

Day 15 / Western desert - Omdurman - Khartoum.
Today we reach the tarmac road to finish the desert crossing. We stop for lunch in a simple chaihouse (a roadhouse where the local truck drivers stop for food and rest), then we reach Omdurman, the old capital of Sudan. After a visit to the big market, we arrive at the Hotel in Khartoum where rooms are available in day use. Dinner free. Late in the evening transfer to the airport (B.L.)

day 16 / Departure
Board your international flight.

FROM THE PHARAONS TO THE QUEEN OF SHEBA
1. Arrival Khartoum. ON htl
2. Khartoum - Karima
3. Karima - visit the Jebel Barkal and the necropolis of El Kurru
4. Karima - excursion in the Nubian desert and to the 4th Cataract
5. Karima - Meroe
6. Meroe - visit to the necropolis and to the royal city of Meroe
7. Meroe - day excursion to the Naga and Musawwarat temples
8. Meroe - Omdurman - Khartoum
9,10. Khartoum-Gondar. Visit the castle city.
11. Cross Semien mountains- Axum
12. AM tour of Axum- pm drive Hawsen
13. Tigray rock churches.
14. Drive Lalibela
15. Lalibela rock hewn churches
16. DebreEstifanos monastery over lake Hayk- Kombolcha
17. Drive back Addis. Pm free.
18. Addis and departure